Zur Rolle des Bundesheeres in der Außenpolitik der Zweiten Republik

Mit englischer und französischer Übersetzung

Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die Rolle des Österreichischen Bundesheeres (ÖBH) im System der österreichischen Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik seit 1955. Trotz knapper Ressourcen war das Bundesheer stets ein Instrument, das die österreichische Außenpolitik auf der Grundlage vorausschauender Konzepte forderte und unterstützte. Die Publikation beschreibt die sich wandelnden Rollen und strategischen Funktionen des österreichischen Militärs vor dem Hintergrund eines sich verändernden sicherheitspolitischen Umfeldes.

This essay examines the role of the Austrian Armed Forces (AAF) in the system of Austria’s foreign and security policy since 1955. Despite resources constraints the AAF have always been an instrument in demand and support of Austria’s foreign policy based on foresighted concepts. The publication describes the changing roles und strategic functions of the Austrian military against the background of changing security political environments.

Die deutschsprachige Version der vorliegenden Artikel erschien bereits im „Handbuch Außenpolitik Österreichs“ (ISBN 978-3-658-37273-6) und ist vollständig als Open Access Publikation verfügbar: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-37274-3. Nachdruck und Übersetzungen mit freundlicher Genehmigung des Verlags Springer VS Wiesbaden.

A European (Regional) Future for Ukraine

On 24 February 2022 the Russian Federation decided to further invade Ukraine and launched a full-scale attack on several cities and regions throughout the country. The unjustified war of aggression against a neighbouring country has shocked the entire world and brought back a unity within the European Union. Four days later, on 28 February, the Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy signed an official application for EU membership. Since then, there have been several discussions, amongst others to fast-track the accession. Such a procedure does not exist. Nevertheless, this does not mean that it is impossible. Yet there are some challenges and points to consider, which we summarize in this policy paper. We argue why a strengthening of the EU’s macroregional strategies and especially the EUSDR is much better suited for short-term support regarding the future of post-war Ukraine.

The Day After – Towards a Greater European Council?

In a historic decision, the European Council granted candidate status to Ukraine and Moldova on 23-24 June 2022 and followed the recommendations given by the European Commission. In particular, Ukraine’s application (28 February 2022) and swift return of the EU’s questionnaires (17 April and 9 May 2022) under dramatic war conditions exerted considerable political and moral pressure on the Brussels institutions to change its policies and routine procedures. Granting candidate status is an important political symbol and sends a strong signal of solidarity to the Ukrainian and Moldovan peoples. By the same token, the EU also encourages its own populations and politicians to continue supporting Ukrainian resistance against Russia’s aggression. However, the EU’s decision can only be seen as the first step in providing the necessary answers to the changing geopolitical and security environment. So, what comes next? Reflecting on different proposals made by the French President Emmanuel Macron and others, we explore the concept of a Greater European Council (GEC) as a new way forward.

Briefing on General Elections in Serbia 2022

General elections were held in Serbia on April 3, 2022 to elect the members of the National Assembly, and the President of the Republic. In addition to the general elections, local elections were held in 14 municipalities, including the capital Belgrade. Shortly after the 2020 parliamentary elections, President Aleksandar Vučić announced that early parliamentary elections would take place in 2022. The president dissolved the parliament in February, for early parliamentary elections to be held on April 3 2022, concurrently with the presidential elections. Following that, in line with the schedule, the speaker of the parliament called the presidential elections. On the same day, local elections were held in cities and municipalities across Serbia, including scheduled elections in Belgrade.

Briefing zur Parlamentswahl in Ungarn 2022

Ungarn hat gewählt. Bei der Parlamentswahl am 3. April 2022 ging der Amtsinhaber und Fidesz-Spitzenkandidat Viktor Orbán als Sieger hervor. Obwohl viele Umfragen ein Kopf-an-Kopf-Rennen vermuten ließen, ist das eingetroffen, was nicht einmal viele Fidesz-KommentatorInnen selbst erwartet hatten: Fidesz hat gemeinsam mit der KDNP nicht nur den Wahlsieg errungen, sondern auch erneut eine Zweidrittelmehrheit im Parlament erlangt. 135 von 199 Sitzen gehen an die rechtskonservative Koalition bestehend aus Fidesz und KDNP. Damit geht Orbán in seine 5. Amtszeit, davon die 4. in Folge. Keine andere Regierungsspitze innerhalb der Europäischen Union war bisher so lange im Amt.

Briefing on Parliamentary Elections in Slovenia 2022

The elections held on 24 April were characterized by almost 70% turnout, the highest in over 20 years. Golob’s GS secured a relative victory by 34.53%, which translated into 41 seats in the parliament (out of 90), followed by Janša’s SDS (23.52%, 27 seats), NSi, (6.86%, 8 seats), SD (6.66%, 7 seats) and the Left (4.93%, 5 seats) (as mentioned already, two seats in the parliament are reserved for elected representatives of Hungarian and Italian national minorities). While all of the aforementioned pre-existing parties achieved a lower share compared to the 2018 elections, many other parties, both pre-existing and newly established, did not make it over the 4% threshold.

The Given. The Crumbling Edifice of Global Peace

26. September 2022

Writing about peace in times of war signals that preventive diplomacy, early warning systems and deterrence failed - disappointing as it is for diplomacy, it has to change gear to crisis management and peace building. It will be a new peace - a peace presumably built of power, having gone through the cycle of end of history, détente, appeasement, back to military might and deterrence.

This article was published in Ursula Werther-Pietsch (ed.), Envisioning Peace in a Time of War. The New School of Multilateralism, Vienna, 2022.

Official statement of the DA on the situation in Ukraine

28. Februar 2022

The DA is appalled by the atrocious and totally unacceptable attack on Ukraine – on its territorial integrity and its people. We stand in solidarity with Ukraine, its government, diplomats and civil servants, academics, students and scholars.

The DA is an academic institution which opens the minds of international students to a democratic and peaceful world order, the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms as well the global and multilateral security system. We are proud of our longstanding and solid ties with academic institutions in Ukraine.

In these terrible times our hearts go out to the people of Ukraine. We do our utmost to support our Ukrainian students, alumni and all affected by the humanitarian crisis with all the means we have at hand.

We call upon the Russian authorities to end the bloodshed in Ukraine.

Open Letter to international leaders and organisations

28. Februar 2022

The DA is proud to share and support our partner GLOBSEC's open letter to international leaders and IO's.

Rethinking the Eastern Partnership and EU-Russia relations

2021 has seen the deterioration in relations between the Russian Federation and its neighbours to the west. A Russian military build-up on the Ukrainian border has led to new fears about a possible Russian escalation, with the Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy going so far as to suggest a coup d'état was being planned. Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko has caused an international crisis on the Polish-Belarusian border, with thousands of people stuck on the forested border areas in freezing conditions. With few supplies and a lack of state support from either country, a serious humanitarian emergency is underway. After the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict in 2020, both Armenia and Azerbaijan are coming to terms with the new reality of the situation. Russian soldiers are stationed across Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia, and it is unlikely they will leave for the foreseeable future, as the tense relations after the conflict simmer on. For the first time since its independence in 1991, Moldova has a real pro-European government, which is ready to tackle the necessary reforms. However, the 14th Russian army is still present in Transnistria and relations with Moscow have been further strained by negotiations about a new gas delivery contract.

Recommendations for a long-term vision for triangular relations (EU-Russia-EaP):
1. Respect the decisions of sovereign states
2. Find a common notion of Europe
3. Create a common security framework
4. Benefit from economic development in the shared neighbourhood
5. Respond together to mutual challenges
6. Rethink the Eastern Partnership

Parliamentary elections in Czechia 2021

One year after the regional and Senate elections in October 2020, the legislative elections have been held in Czechia on 8th and 9th October 2021. During the eighth elections since the founding of the state in 1993, a total of 200 members of the lower house of the Parliament coming from 14 constituencies have been elected for another four-year term. For the first time since the formation of the independent Czech Republic in 1993, the traditional and well-established left-wing parties of the ČSSD (4,65%) and the KSČM (3,60%) have not surpassed the entry threshold and are not represented in parliament at all.

On the occasion of the parliamentary elections in Czechia, the Institute for the Danube Region and Central Europe (IDM), in cooperation with the Karl Renner Institute and the Political Academy, organised another panel discussion as part of the traditional series of events on parliamentary elections in IDM target countries. You can rewatch the discussion on the IDM YouTube channel. Moreover, a detailed description of the situation around the parliamentary elections was summarized in a written briefing by Daniel Martínek, IDM Research Associate.

Bundestagswahl in Deutschland 2021

Eines fehlte während des Wahlkampfes vor der Bundestagswahl in Deutschland am 26. September 2021 die ganze Zeit: das Thema der deutschen Außenpolitik, etwa die Beziehungen Deutschlands zu anderen europäischen Staaten oder seine Rolle innerhalb der EU und der europäischen Integration. Das IDM hat dieses Thema nachgeholt und eine weitere Online-Podiumsdiskussion mit dem Fokus auf die Rolle Deutschlands in der Region Mittel-, Ost- und Südosteuropa organisiert. Die Online-Podiumsdiskussion wurde von IDM in Zusammenarbeit mit der Politischen Akademie im Rahmen der traditionellen Veranstaltungsreihe zu Parlamentswahlen in unseren Zielländern organisiert. Sie können die Onlinediskussion auf dem IDM-YouTube-Kanal ansehen.

Darüber hinaus wurde ein Briefing von Sebastian Schäffer über die Lage in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland vor der Wahl sowie über alle wichtigen Informationen rund um die Bundestagswahl zusammengefasst.

Die Krise in Bosnien und Herzegowina. Ursachen, Hintergründe, mögliche Auswege

28. Februar 2022

Bosnien und Herzegowina befindet sich in einer seiner schwersten Krisen seit Kriegsende. Viele Menschen haben wieder Angst vor gewaltsamen Konflikten, wenn nicht sogar Krieg. Hauptverantwortlich dafür ist die separatistische Politik Milorad Dodiks, des Anführers der bosnischen Serb:innen. Er hat in letzter Zeit ernste Schritte in Richtung Loslösung der Republika Srpska vom Gesamtstaat gesetzt.
Gerhard Marchl, Experte für europäische Politik am Karl-Renner-Institut, traf auf einer Bosnien-Reise mit zahlreichen Menschen aus Verwaltung, Zivilgesellschaft und Diplomatie zusammen. In seinem Papier analysiert er die Hintergründe der Krise sowie die Rolle der internationalen Gemeinschaft und ihrer wichtigsten Player. Er beleuchtet zudem den politischen Stillstand und die weit verbreitete Korruption, die neben den sozioökonomischen Problemen zu Frustration und massenhafter Auswanderung vor allem der Jungend führen. Schließlich skizziert das Papier mögliche Auswege aus der gegenwärtigen Krise und aus dem politischen Stillstand.

On the path back to conflict or to progressive reforms?

28. Februar 2022

This policy paper provides an overview of the problems that Bosnia and Herzegovina is facing and contains policy recommendations for national and international actors.

From 15th to 20th of October 2021, a group of young experts from the region in cooperation with a team of the Austria-based think tanks – International Institute for Peace, the Karl-Renner-Institut and the Austrian Institute for International Affairs – went on a study trip to Sarajevo, Jajce and Mostar. The group met with diplomats, politicians, representatives of the EU, the OHR, and civil society to discuss alternative horizons which ultimately could pave a way for BiH to become more prosperous and more democratic and to provide a perspective for the people to stay in the country instead of leaving it for good. With all the difficulties and challenges BiH is facing, it is important not to give up hope and to look for alternatives.

Slowenien auf autoritärem Kurs? Regierungschef Janša auf den Spuren Orbáns

28. Februar 2022

Sloweniens Regierungschef Janez Janša, der seit März 2020 wieder im Amt ist, fährt einen stramm rechten Kurs und fällt mit Rhetorik auf, die an Viktor Orbán erinnert. Zudem attackiert seine rechtsgerichtete Regierung wiederholt die unabhängige Justiz des Landes. Auch die unabhängigen Medien Sloweniens sind ständigem Druck ausgesetzt, während Medien, die Janša nahestehen oder ihm gewogen sind, gefördert werden. Nicht minder hart hat die Zivilgesellschaft des Landes zu kämpfen. Doch ist Sloweniens demokratisches System bereits ähnlich gefährdet wie jenes in Ungarn?

Das Paper analysiert die innenpolitische Lage in Slowenien und die vielfach bedenklichen Entwicklungen, die Ministerpräsident Janez Janša angestoßen hat. Darüber hinaus bietet es eine Einschätzung, inwieweit die Situation in Slowenien mit jener in Ungarn vergleichbar ist.

Die Beziehungen EU-Türkei. Die Gasvorkommen im östlichen Mittelmeer als zusätzlicher Konfliktstoff

28. Februar 2022

Seit fünfzehn Jahren wird über den Beitritt der Türkei zur EU verhandelt, freilich ohne nennenswerte Fortschritte. Vielmehr hat sich die Türkei in den letzten Jahren zunehmend von den Werten der EU wie Demokratie, Rechtsstaatlichkeit und Menschenrechten entfernt und handelt außenpolitisch vielfach entgegen den Interessen der EU. Augenscheinlich wird dies nicht zuletzt im sogenannten Gasstreit, also der Auseinandersetzung um die Ausbeutung der Gasvorkommen im östlichen Mittelmeer. Im Laufe des Jahres 2020 spitzte sich der Konflikt mehrmals gefährlich zu, so dass die EU dem Beitrittskandidaten Türkei mit der Verhängung weiterer Sanktionen droht.

Das Paper zeigt die vielen Streitpunkte sowie die unterschiedlichen Interessen zwischen der EU und der Türkei auf. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt dabei auf dem Gasstreit. Es verweist jedoch auch auf die Gemeinsamkeiten und die stabilisierenden Faktoren im komplexen Verhältnis EU-Türkei.

Why the Western Balkans should join the EU immediately

The conference on the Future of Europe has been launched in May 2021. Erhard Busek, Sebastian Schäffer and Emilie Laborel contribute to this debate with their Policy Paper “Why the Western Balkans should join the EU immediately” and offer the following 5 recommendations:
1. Reforming European decision-making
2. Integrating of regions into the institutional set-up
3. Taking advantage of existing cooperation formats
4. Fostering mutual understanding and exchange
5. Acting now for the future

Beyond East and West: A New Direction for Moldova?

In November 2020, Maia Sandu was elected as the new president of the Republic of Moldova. It was an overwhelming victory and a strong signal towards checks and balances and against corruption and nepotism. This result might represent a clear turning point for Moldova which has a concrete possibility to move ahead and build a more stable and prosperous future. Furthermore, it confirms the desire of Moldovan people to strengthen their relations to the European Union and it might even have a positive impact for the dynamics of the region.

Parlamentswahlen in der Republik Moldau

Zu den Parlamentswahlen in der Republik Moldau organisierte das Institut für den Donauraum und Mitteleuropa (IDM) in Zusammenarbeit mit der Politischen Akademie eine Podiumsdiskussion im Rahmen der traditionellen Veranstaltungsreihe zu Parlamentswahlen in IDM-Zielländern. Sie können die Onlinediskussion auf dem IDM-YouTube-Kanal ansehen:

Darüber hinaus wurde die aktuelle Lage in der Republik Moldau sowie alle wichtigen Informationen rund um die Parlamentswahlen in einem Briefing zusammengefasst.

Die Think Tank-Landschaft Österreichs - Eine Umfrage unter Mitgliedern des Foreign Affairs Think Tank Netzwerks

Diese Studie erforscht zum ersten Mal systematisch die Typen, Arbeitsweisen, Finanzierung und Personalstruktur der verschiedenen außen-und sicherheitspolitischen Think Tanks in Österreich. Anhand einer nicht-repräsentativen Umfrage mit 20 außen-und sicherheitspolitischen Think Tanks wurde auch die Selbsteinschätzung des Einflusses auf politische Akteur*innen erfasst. Österreichische Think Tanks werden vor allem staatlich finanziert und decken ein breites Themenfeld ab. Die Mitarbeiter*innen der Think Tanks gaben an, dass die Expertisen vor allem im Bundesministerium für europäische und internationale Angelegenheiten geschätzt werden. Podiumsdiskussionen, Seminare und Workshops werden als besonders wirkungsvoll eingeschätzt.

30th Anniversary of the Break-up of Yugoslavia

This Special Issue of the wiiw's Monthly Reports is dedicated to the 30th Anniversary of the Break-up of Yugoslavia. It contains charts about the Yugoslav transition, an interview with Vladimir Gligorov about the inevitability of the break-up of Yugoslavia, an analysis of the economic roots of Yugoslavia's disintegration, and about the break points and convergence in Western Balkan economies in 1952-2013.

Parliamentary Elections in Albania

On 25 April 2021, the new parliament has been elected in Albania. The election was the first one under the new electoral law. The elections were taking place whilst Albania was undergoing a deep reform in the judicial system, which seem to have caused some fatigue amongst its people, as no real results were shared with the public yet. The campaign was a neck-on-neck fight between the ruling Socialist Party, which is in power since 2013, and the Democratic Party, which looked ready and eager to enter again the political arena. Polls were showing a narrowing gap between the two. However, the country witnessed another victory of the Socialist Party led by Edi Rama, which defended its already third mandate in a row. What is already clear is that the new government will have to face the old challenges such as judicial reform, fight against corruption or organised crime.

On this occasion, the Institute for the Danube Region and Central Europe (IDM), in cooperation with the Karl Renner Institute and the Political Academy, organised another panel discussion as part of our traditional series of events on parliamentary elections in our target countries. You can rewatch the discussion on the IDM YouTube channel.

Moreover, a detailed description of the situation around the parliamentary elections was summarized in a written briefing by Edlira Gjoni, Director of the Center for Public Impact in Tirana.

The Strategic Role of External Actors in the Western Balkans

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia are not only geographically and historically closely linked to Austria and the European Union but are also of great economic and geopolitical importance to them. Accordingly, the influence of other states on the countries of the Western Balkans is of equally great relevance. The importance of the Western Balkans and the region’s future for the European Union can be seen by the effort the Union puts into them.

This study aims to provide an objective analysis of the dimensions and nature of assistance and its strategic importance in the Western Balkans. It contributes to a better understanding about the role and concrete goals of other external actors in the region, and in further consequence will lead to an enhanced rapprochement between the EU and the countries from the Western Balkans.

This is a joint publication of the Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies, the Political Academy of the Austrian People's Party and the Austrian Institute for European and Security Policy (AIES).

Nurturing the EU Science Diplomacy Community: The Launch of a EU Science Diplomacy Alliance for Addressing Global Challenges. Report, S4D4C

S4D4C’s approach to science diplomacy promotes a multi-stakeholder endeavor and searches to nurture a European science diplomacy community where scientists, scholars, innovators, diplomats, policy-makers, and other practitioners have the opportunity to interact for the benefit of EU science diplomacy.

This report, which has been developed by S4D4C consortium members from the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT) with contributions from partners and stakeholders, identifies and highlights different types of science diplomacy stakeholders (governmental, intergovernmental and supranational, research and academic, from private sector and civil society) and maps the currently existing science diplomacy networks (at the subnational, national, sub-global, and global levels). In profiling science diplomacy stakeholders and networks, it aims to showcase the different realities of science diplomats, bring the abstract concept of “science diplomacy” to life, and inspire scientists, researchers, innovators and diplomats to build from all of these models and apply them to different challenges or cultural contexts.

Nurturing this community and developing new talent at the interface of science and diplomacy might be the path to develop new ideas and models to better address existing and emerging social challenges in the EU. It is a unique opportunity, at a strategic level, for improving the science diplomacy European system.

Refugee Women as Agents for Peace. The UN Women, Peace and Security Agenda in the Context of Forced Displacement. Country Study Austria

In the year 2000, the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 was adopted – with the main aims of strengthening women’s participation in peace and security governance; ensuring their protection; enabling their recovery from conflict-related and gender-based violence; and contributing to the prevention of armed conflict. In addition, UNSCR 1325 demands gender awareness in conflict analysis and peacebuilding. A number of resolutions, national and regional action plans followed, which together form the UN Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda.

One significant group however has been widely ignored in the discourse, action plans and implementation of this agenda, namely forcibly-displaced, conflict-affected women and girls who have sought asylum in Europe. We took the 20th anniversary of the UNSCR 1325 as an occasion to draw attention to the connection between these two policy areas: the WPS agenda and forced migration to Europe. This study focuses on the gaps in the implementation of the WPS agenda in Austria with regards to the rights and living conditions of refugee and asylum-seeking women. We strongly believe that this research enriches the WPS discourse and empowers refugee women as agents for peace.

From Austria to Afghanistan. Forced return and a new migration cycle

Information on what happens to Afghans who returned to Afghanistan from Austria, especially since the so-called ‘refugee crisis’ of 2015, is sparse and scattered. For this study, a total of 16 semi-structured interviews were carried out with the Afghan males who lived in Austria for a number of years, and were returned to Afghanistan either ‘voluntarily’ or through forceful removal. The results of semi-structured interviews illustrate the risks and challenges that Afghan returnees face in Afghanistan upon their return.

A Guide to Afghan Diaspora Engagement in Europe

This guide presents 20 promising development projects from five countries that have been implemented by Afghan diaspora organisations in Europe since the Taliban were ousted from power by US-led coalition troops in 2001. In addition, the guide presents five projects of active Afghan diaspora initiatives in Austria, which are mainly active in the intercultural field. The guide is intended to support European development organisations and donor countries in using the potential of Afghan diaspora organisations and to provide an incentive for development cooperation in Austria.

In addition, it offers recommendations for future measures and for a better integration of Afghan diaspora organisations in development and migration policy.

Somali Diaspora Engagement in Austria

Diaspora communities make a significant impact on the economic, social and political development of both their countries of origin and residence. Research shows that when the right policies are in place, there is a positive relationship between integration and participation on one hand, and transnational engagement on the other.

As there is minimal knowledge about and/or dialogue with Somali communities - which make up the second largest group from Sub-Saharan Africa in Austria - this report contributes to filling this gap. In order to acquire a greater insight into the activities, priorities and needs of these associations, the VIDC asked two experts from the Somali community to conduct the research.

Spillovers. Die Auswirkungen des österreichischen Steuersystems auf sogenannte Entwicklungsländer

Die Studie behandelt die Rolle des internationalen Steuerwettbewerbs beim Entstehen von Spillover-Effekten. Dann gibt sie einen kurzen Überblick über Reformbestrebungen im internationalen Steuerrecht, die in den vergangenen Jahren an Dynamik gewonnen haben. Der Hauptteil der Untersuchung widmet sich einer qualitativen Analyse möglicher Spillover-Effekte von österreichischen steuerpolitischen Initiativen in der Unternehmensbesteuerung. Ein besonderes Augenmerk liegt auf den möglichen Auswirkungen auf sogenannte Entwicklungsländer.

Actions and Reactions: Political Crisis in Belarus as Seen from Brussels and Moscow

Belarusians have taken to the streets of their cities and towns for over five months now, demanding free and fair elections after the presidential vote in August had been bla-tantly rigged. ‘The longer the political crisis drags on, the more Russia’s and the EU’s ac-tions matter.

The perception of the Belarusian political crisis in the East and the West is a different one. The elites in Russia view the protest as coor-dinated by the West, whereas the EU consid-ers it as a purely domestic issue. Russia has a high interest in Belarus, in terms of security, economics, culture etc. For the EU, stability in its neighbouring country is essential. It is questionable how long Lukashenka will stay in power, as he is not a promising partner, neither for Russia, nor for the EU.

Global resilience through knowledge-based cooperation: A New Protocol for Science Diplomacy

23. Februar 2021

The world is currently dealing with one of the most severe health, economic and social crises in recent memory. Scholars are converging on the perspective that traditional means of addressing these crises have served their time. On the additional backdrop of a global political landscape in transition, realising a post-COVID-19 pandemic recovery will require new modes of international collaboration with scientific knowledge and expertise figuring more prominently. A smart approach to science diplomacy — to global resilience through knowledge-based cooperation — does not prescribe the content, but rather focuses on the process of science-based international exchange. The new Protocol for Science Diplomacy presented in this policy brief inspires the alignment of shared, cosmopolitan interests and their application to cross-border societal challenges. It comprises a set of twelve procedural and infrastructural principles with which actors can create a space for constructive and productive science diplomacy interactions. The Protocol for Science Diplomacy sets new ground rules for international scientific and policy collaboration that enable, inter alia, to make meaningful steps towards tackling the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by their 2030 deadline. As such, it offers a roadmap for science diplomacy in the next decade and beyond.

S4D4C is a EU Horizon 2020 project consisting of 10 European partners, coordinated by the Centre for Social Innovation (ZSI).

Why science diplomacy needs evaluative backing

23. Februar 2021

The public discourse of science diplomacy has been nurtured for two decades, as actors repeatedly stressed the relevance of the concept by campaigning, showcasing and defining activities as science diplomacy. But while the effectiveness of science diplomacy remains unclear, not least as discourse on it gets hardly discerned from concrete actions, this policy brief aims proposes that diplomacy actions should be concretely evaluated. To do so, this policy brief introduces a first set of guiding ideas that policy actors may consider using when developing an evaluative framework.

S4D4C is a EU Horizon 2020 project consisting of 10 European partners, coordinated by the Centre for Social Innovation (ZSI).

Internationales Konfliktmanagement in Zeiten einer Pandemie. Krisenfestigkeit auf dem Prüfstand

Die Pandemie COVID-19 hat 2020/21 auf globaler und europäischer Ebene neue Maßstäbe für die medizinische und wirtschaftliche Krisenbewältigung gesetzt. Vor diesem dramatischen Hintergrund stellt sich auch im sicherheitspolitischen Bereich die zentrale Frage: Wie krisenfest ist eigentlich das internationale Konfliktmanagement?
Neun wissenschaftliche Beiträge von Autorinnen und Autoren aus dem IFK versuchen darauf erste Antworten zu geben. Der thematische Bogen reicht von den Trends im EU-Krisen- und Konfliktmanagement, über Aktivitäten von Terrorgruppen in Pandemiezeiten zu den sicherheitspolitischen Herausforderungen durch Klima-Veränderungen. Im regionalen und geopolitischen Teil werden – über die Pandemiethematik hinausreichend – die Resilienz-Herausforderungen in krisenhaften Nachbarregionen der EU sowie die Resilienz-Konzepte ausgewählter Regionalmächte und Chinas analysiert.

Bergkarabach: Neuordnung der regionalen Machtverhältnisse

Aus dem sechswöchigen Konflikt in und um die Region Bergkarabach gehen insbesondere Aserbaidschan, Russland und die Türkei als Sieger hervor. Mithilfe modern ausgerüsteter Streitkräfte schuf man neue Realitäten im Südkaukasus: nationale als auch geopolitische. Während die Türkei ihren Einfluss in Baku ausbaut, zementiert der Kreml durch geschickte Diplomatie und raschen Einsatz der Streitkräfte seine Position im südlichen Vorhof auf lange Frist ein. Zu den Verlierern zählen neben Armenien und der OSZE auch alle Anstrengungen zu einer friedlichen Konfliktlösung.

Might Feminism Revive Arms Control? Why greater inclusion of women in nuclear policy is necessary and how to achieve it

The link between gender and security has become a prominent issue in the public debate over the last decades. On the most basic level, it is understood as greater inclusion of women in security policy decision-making processes. Despite positive developments, a gender approach to security policy has been relatively limited. The international security field is not unified, and the role of women in this area has been researched and acknowledged in some spheres more than in others.

Nonproliferation and disarmament of weapons of mass destruction - and more specifically of nuclear weapons - have been at the core of the international security architecture since the early days of the Cold War. Despite its significance, the discussion on gender and nuclear weapons has thus far been very limited, both in terms of research and practical implementation. This article seeks to explain the reasons why this might be the case, examine where the discussion stands today, and propose solutions on what could be done to move it forward.

Friends with Enemies: Neutrality and Nonalignment Then and Now

The following conclusions are the outcome of the “Friends with Enemies: Neutrality and Nonalignment Then and Now” conference held on March 2-3, 2020 in Vienna. Over 30 experts and artists from Austria, Switzerland, Japan, Finland, India, Egypt, Iran, Belarus, Ireland, the United States, Russia, and Germany discussed the past, present, and future of neutrality and nonalignment.
It aimed to commemorate sixty-five years of Austria’s neutrality by highlighting and analysing the meaning and usage of neutrality around the world today. Thirty years after the end of the Cold War, the international security environment faces numerous challenges and is subject to shifting global dynamics and alliances. With the rise of China, the resurgence of Russia, and new ideas for security cooperation in Europe, the US-led unipolar security system of recent decades seem to be in its final days. Alliances in Europe and Asia are not as clear-cut as they used to be, and even core institutions such as NATO and the US-Japan alliance are under pressure. What does this mean for neutrals and nonaligned countries?

1st Vienna Peace & Security Talks

The following recommendations are the outcome of the “1st Vienna Peace & Security Talks” held on September 9th, 2019 in Vienna. Around 30 experts from Austria, Germany, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, USA, Lebanon and Cyprus discussed the future of a common EU Foreign & Security Policy. The talks have been organised by the International institute for Peace (IIP), the Karl-Renner Institute, the FES Regional Office for Cooperation and Peace in Europe and the University of Vienna.

Young Generations for the New Balkans - Vision 2030

The initiative Young Generations for the new Balkans 2030: Towards Alternative Horizons sets the spotlight on youth, their progressive stances and hopes for the future in order to understand the reality on the ground and to set trends for a positive future of our neighbouring region. It features stakeholders, activists, and young people from the region and the EU.
This paper represents an attempt to summarize all that energy and ideas that were collected in discussions, expert interviews and articles, talking to experts, politicians, diplomats and general public and offers concrete proposals.

Klimawandel als Konfliktpotential in der Region Afghanistan

Afghanistan als Teil der Indusregion ist in den letzten Jahren von langen Dürreperioden, stark abnehmendem Grundwasser und dem Konflikt um Wasser und fruchtbares Land geprägt. Der Klimawandel hat Afghanistan und seine Nachbarn Pakistan und Iran daher längst erfasst. Zudem hat die jahrzehntelange Bürgerkriegsökonomie die Umwelt und die Wasserinfrastruktur weitgehend zerstört. In der Folge sind sicherheitspolitische Konfliktlinien um Ressourcen entstanden, die der Bevölkerung zunehmend die Lebensgrundlage entziehen sowie Migration und Flucht auslösen. Internationales Krisenmanagement hat diese Entwicklungen mitzudenken und kann gezielte Akzente setzen, um Fluchtursachen entgegenzuwirken.

Mogherini in Brussels and Strasbourg. Executive-Legislative Relations between the High Representative and the European Parliament

In the post-Lisbon era a fierce interinstitutional battle for more transparency, budgetary oversight and supervision was carried out between the Parliament and the High Representative for CFSP. Accountability has thus increased due to a number of factors. The High Representatives have gradually granted those powers through interinstitutional agreements, a declaration on political accountability and informal exchange with the Parliament and relevant committees. This paper looks at the agreements, case law and informal procedures and the attendance of the HR/VPs in the Parliament. At an early stage Catherine Ashton was primarily occupied with setting up the External Action Service, and thus had to engage with the parliament on procedures, budgetary oversight and certain means of supervision. This inevitably included touching questions of interinstitutional balance and democratic accountability. Her successor Federica Mogherini focused overall on increased coherence between all Commissioners working on external action, drafted a global security strategy, and favored a closer cooperation with the Parliament. Overall, the accountability of the High Representative vis-à-vis the Parliament has remarkably increased. In the question of access to documents in the realm of Foreign Policy the Court has clearly sided with the Parliament so far. In 2019, it remains to be seen how a new Commission and High Representative will keep up to Mogherini's interinstitutional political will and continue the "open arms approach" to the Parliament.

The EU’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis with a focus on the Eastern Neighbourhood and Africa

With the worldwide outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, we are experiencing intense competition between global players as to who can best contain the crisis and who is a reliable international partner in the global fight against the coronavirus and the economic and social consequences it causes. The EU appears to have been disqualified in that game of rivalry right from the start due to its lack of internal coordination and solidarity. After a moment of shock, however, the EU now seems to have gathered steam in terms of globally engaging against the coronavirus crisis and could outpace its main competitors such as China and Russia. Now, more than two months after the crisis started to severely hit also the EU with Italy as the first member state in its epicentre, there is accumulating evidence to prove this fact: Increasing investments in research and development, an active science diplomacy and fast, but also sustainable reactions in the field of development cooperation. However, existing resources in development cooperation do not suffice to overcome the full scale of this global crisis, which demands more than health supply and economic aid. More farsighted approaches, that forward the long-term goals for social, ecological and ecomic recovery after the crisis, and an improved information policy with stronger public relations will be necessary for the EU so that it can reliably maintain its position as the most important and partnership-oriented partner for Africa and its Eastern neighbourhood.

Building Better Science Diplomacy for Global Challenges: insights from the COVID-19 crisis

In this new policy brief, Mitchell Young and a team of contributors from S4D4C - where the Vienna School of International Studies is a partner - elaborate on what we can learn from the COVID-19 crisis to build a stronger science diplomacy interface for better handling global challenges in the future.

COVID-19 has highlighted shortcomings in the current interaction between international relations and scientific cooperation. The crisis demonstrates the need for improving science diplomacy practices, something the S4D4C project has been pursuing since the beginning of 2018.

The S4D4C case studies investigated a broad range of global challenges and are useful for both analysing the current crisis and guiding the process of drawing lessons from it. The case studies exposed key element of what is important for science diplomacy – four of them are discussed in the policy brief: narratives, interests, values, and interdisciplinarity. Building on this, the policy brief provides five recommendations to improve future science diplomacy efforts.

Neue Wege für Zukunftsmanagement und Politikberatung - Am Beispiel des 3C Netzwerks

Politikführung und Zukunftsdenken wachsen zusammen. Wir brauchen neue Kommunikationsstrukturen. Die multiple Systemkrise Covid-19 macht gesamtstaatliche Ansätze im Denken und Handeln von Regierungen unabdingbar. Auf die Frage, wie inklusive Governance Modelle in Zukunft aussehen können, gibt es neue Antworten. Die erste Lehre, die wir aus der Covid-19 Krise ziehen ist, jederzeit resilient handeln zu können. Je schneller das betroffene System zu seiner normalen Funktionsweise zurückkehrt, desto resilienter ist es. Zur Resilienz trägt die Fähigkeit bei, über leicht und schnell aktivierbare, verlässliche Netzwerke zu verfügen. Denn Krisenvorsorge heißt nicht nur, mit detaillierten Plänen für alle Optionen aufzuwarten, sondern auch in kürzester Zeit auf eine möglichst breite Wissensbasis zugreifen zu können. Dies wirft die Frage nach geeigneten Instrumenten von Politikberatung auf, die mit dem langfristigen Aufbau von Netzwerken verknüpft sind. Die Schnittstelle zwischen politischer Entscheidung und Aufbereitung von Entscheidungsoptionen betrifft dabei nicht nur die Wissenschaft, sie ist – demokratiepolitisch gesehen – eine gesamtgesellschaftliche Aufgabe.

Gefragt ist die gesamtheitliche Produktion von politischem Wissen und Verfahren zur Optimierung von Politikberatung post-Covid-19 („Vier Fenster Theorie“). Es geht um eine neue Balance zwischen Politik, Gesellschaft und Wissenschaft, um „Zukunftsmanagement“.

Die Türkei und ihre Beziehung zur Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham

Das vorliegende Arbeitspapier bietet einen Einblick in die Gründungsgeschichte Hay’at Tahrir al-Shams (HTS), eine der führenden salafi-dschihadistischen Gruppierungen in Idlib, und beleuchtet ihre Beziehungen zu einem der wichtigsten Regionalakteure im Syrienkonflikt, der Türkei.

Der Werdegang von Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham ist von mehreren Rebranding-Versuchen und internen wie externen Verwerfungen geprägt. Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham und seine Vorläuferorganisationen verfolgten seit der Gründung 2012 das Ziel, sich zumindest in ihrer Außenwahrnehmung vom globalen Al-Qaida Netzwerk abzugrenzen, um sich als Schirmherr der syrischen Opposition positionieren zu können. Die Autoren argumentieren, dass die Türkei bereits vor 2016 den Versuch unternahm, HTS als Teil des von der Türkei unterstützten Oppositionsnetzwerkes zu positionieren. Heute deutet vieles darauf hin, dass sich innerhalb HTS “moderatere” Strömungen durchgesetzt haben dürften, wie etwa der Abgang prominenter Hardliner in den letzten Monaten verdeutlichte. HTS ist jedoch kein Befehlsempfänger der Türkei und so bleibt der Waffenstillstand vom März 2020 ein brüchiger.

Development Aid, Migration and Conditionality. The Case of the Marshall Plan with Africa

This policy brief analyses the current efforts by the EU and its member states to provide development aid to third countries. It concentrates on the Marshall Plan with Africa. Proposed by Germany, this plan is intended to bring cooperation between Europe and Africa to a new level. The study examines this plan in light of debates on the impact of development aid on third countries in general, and on migratory dynamics in particular. The specific focus is on aid conditionality related to cooperation on migration.

The policy brief makes recommendations for future EU–Africa cooperation, in the hope that mistakes which have repeatedly been made can be avoided. It recommends that, to ensure a regular dialogue between the two continents, Africa should remain high on the agendas of both the EU and the member states. To decrease irregular migration, legal pathways should be created and the struggle against smuggling networks should be stepped up.

The Dragonbear: An Axis of Convenience or a New Mode of Shaping the Global System?

Over the last decade, a rapprochement between China and Russia has been occasionally discussed as regards a possible strategic alliance between them or the lack of such. The interpretations of the context of increasing connectivity between the two countries range from very sceptic to very positive. This paper also discusses two plausible directions of recent developments.

Wenn aus den Trümmern neues Leben erwacht

In diesen Tagen wird oft ein Vergleich zwischen der Corona-Krise und dem Zweiten Weltkrieg gezogen. Der Kampf gegen den Corona Virus gilt als die größte Herausforderung seit dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. Und dennoch, die Dramatik der Zeit von 1939 bis 1945 und jener im Jahre 2020 ist unvergleichlich. Aus Krisen kann aber auch neues Leben entstehen.

Jetzt gilt es die Widerstandskraft der EU zu stärken

"Focus Europa"-Interview mit EU-Budgetkommissar Johannes Hahn: Die „Widerstandskraft“ der EU zu stärken, das ist eines der Ziele, die Hahn mit besonderem Nachdruck als Reaktion auf die Corona-Pandemie mit all ihren wirtschaftlichen Verwerfungen verfolgen will. Europa muss in wichtigen Bereichen wieder autark werden und sich aus gewissen Abhängigkeiten in der Industriepolitik lösen.

Die Rückkehr der Geopolitik? Möglichkeiten und Limitation geopolitischer Analysen

Dieses Arbeitspapier beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, ob Geopolitik als Perspektive auf internationale Beziehungen, Prozesse und Konflikte sowohl von Seiten politischer Akteure als auch innerhalb der wissenschaftlichen Debatte wieder dominanter wird. Geopolitik beschreibt dabei die Rolle von Geographie, meist verstanden im Sinne von Territorialität, Ausweitung von Einflusssphären und Zugang zu Ressourcen, als Motor von politischen Handlungen in der internationalen Politik. Basierend auf aktuellen Debatten über die „Rückkehr der Geopolitik“, welche in den vergangenen Jahren besonders von den USA ausgingen, erörtern wir traditionelle und kritische Zugänge zur Geopolitik und evaluieren ihren Erkenntnisgewinn. Anhand dreier Fallstudien (Krise in der Ukraine, Konflikt im Südchinesischen Meer, Grenzpolitik) untersuchen wir die Möglichkeiten, aber auch die Limitationen geopolitischen Denkens und legen dar, welche anderen Perspektiven in die Analyse integriert werden müssen, um aktuelle Transformationen im internationalen System umfassend verstehen und erklären zu können.

COVID-19 in the Danube Region – resilience or reversion of European integration?

IDM Policy Paper Series 1/2020

By now the coronavirus pandemic has influenced the life in each and every country in the world. In the Danube Region, the emergency measures against a further spread of the COVID-19 disease are, however, producing mixed results. The current crisis shows a diversity of approaches that the countries have undertaken, as well as different capabilities in coping with the invisible danger. We have arrived at the historical crossroads, where not only our immune systems but also our very foundations of democracy as well as tools for cooperation are challenged. We will provide an overview on the different reactions by governments in the Danube Region to the outbreak of the virus and offer recommendations for future political developments resulting from these initial observations.

IDMonSite: Interview with Bekim Baliqi, University of Prishtina

In this IDMonSite-Interview, Dr. Bekim Baliqi, Assoc. Professor at the University of Prishtina, talked about the falldown of the Kurti government in times of Covid-19 restrictions, the dialogue to Serbia in the context of possible EU integration and geopolitical interests regarding the Western Balkan region.

COVID-19: Herausforderungen für die europäische Sicherheit und ausgewählte Krisenregionen

Wenngleich das unmittelbare Krisenmanagement von COVID-19 aktuell im Vordergrund steht und der Fokus auf den epidemiologischen und wirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen liegt, so müssen auch die sicherheitspolitischen Folgen dieser Pandemie auf nationaler wie internationaler Ebene im Auge behalten werden. Diese sind noch nicht abschließend zu bewerten, sie dürften aber gravierend und langanhaltend sein. Die Experten des IFK versuchen in einer ersten Analyse verschiedene Szenarien, erste Trends und mögliche Auswirkungen der Pandemie auf das Internationale Krisen- und Konfliktmanagement in relevanten Regionen zu beschreiben.

Pandemic Mitigation in the Digital Age

Digital Epidemiological Measures to Combat the Coronavirus Pandemic

As the current coronavirus pandemic proceeds, several governments have already utilized digital epidemiological tools to combat the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, with some early successes. The role of user-based and provider-based data collection, and in particular location data, has characterized the mitigation strategies of some of the most effective national responses.

This report recommends specific digital contact tracing and quarantine measures (CTQ) that are in accordance with existing EU legislation, and offers a way forward to consider a principle towards “data for the common good” to help combat the current coronavirus pandemic.

Among the reviewed cases (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, China, and Israel) studied, one conclusion stands out: the more democratic nations are openly deploying existing national security means, especially in location tracking and the merging of databases.

IDM Short Insights: The earthquake in Zagreb/Croatia

On 22nd March 2020, the Croatian capital was hit by a 5.5 magnitude #earthquake. Boris Blažević, Corporate Social Responsibility manager at the Erste Bank in Croatia, gives an update on the current situation in Zagreb and how the government is reacting to the multitude of challenges arising from this catastrophe in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic.

From Fictional to Functioning Democracy

Developing Concepts and Strategies for an Inclusive and Participatory Europe (FIFUDEM)

This IDM project focuses on scrutinising the contexts and causes of illiberal, resp. fictional democracy and developing concepts and strategies of strengthening liberal, resp. functioning, democracy.

Watch the video statements, for instance from Ivan Krastev, here:

Towards effective science diplomacy practice

23. Januar 2020

S4D4C - Using Science Diplomacy for Addressing Global Challenges

Our S4D4C colleagues from the University of Twente focus on key premises for the development of effective governance mechanisms for science diplomacy in their Policy Brief #2.

Grand societal challenges require collective action within and across national borders. Effective action is expected from Europe and it requires targeted inter-governmental and diplomatic efforts and the mobilisation of appropriate scientific knowledge. Science Diplomacy is a promising mechanism to address these grand societal challenges. The complexity arising from the existing variety of mechanisms and stakeholders in science diplomacy precludes a clear-cut definition of who should ‘do’ science diplomacy in what way. And many stakeholders that could be labelled ‘science diplomacy organisation’ would not do so themselves. This presents challenges for organising the governance of science diplomacy. The authors suggest premises for governing mechanisms for science diplomacy in Europe to be effective.

How to implement a WTO-compatible full border carbon adjustment as an important part of the European Green Deal

Policy brief by Diplomatische Akademie Wien student Alexander Krenek on issues of implementation of an EU BCA (border cabon adjustment).

The European Commission has announced to step up carbon emission reduction targets for 2030 and 2050, respectively. These targets would require even bigger efforts to price carbon emissions at the EU as well as at the national level. The EU and its member states will find themselves in a position of increasing costs of production due to those efforts while other emitters such as China, acting within the Paris Agreement framework, will be allowed to increase their emissions until 2030. The United States are exiting from the Paris agreement altogether and are actively reducing environmental standards. In this situation the calls for implementing a border carbon adjustment (BCA) to complement the EU Emission Trading System (ETS) are becoming louder. Most recently, the new von der Leyen European Commission in their just released plans for a European Green Deal announced to propose a BCA mechanism for the EU. In theory a BCA would be a perfect mechanism to enable unilateral carbon pricing avoiding a loss of competitiveness and the resulting carbon leakage vis-à-vis third countries.

Revolution revisited - Why Czechia urgently needs to complete unfinished business

A small country like the Czech Republic is generally given little attention in foreign media. This situation changed in 2019, when the protest on Sunday of June 23 with more than a quarter of a million people gathering on the Letná Plain in Prague was observed by many foreign journalists from the roof-tops of neighbouring buildings. Exactly thirty years after the fall of the communist regime, the Czech Republic was once again experiencing massive demonstrations. What are the reasons behind and what must be done so that people do not have to fill the streets and squares all over the country again?

New Technologies - New Impacts on International Missions of Austria?

New technologies and “disruptive innovations“ are influencing not only international politics and global economy, but also the strategies and operational toolkits of state and non-state actors alike. Above all, they create new threats, but also opportunities for peace operations and humanitarian missions and have complex implications for Austrian and European stability. Technology-driven advances create the need to adapt to challenges and new rules of engagement on land, in the air, at sea and in cyber space. The question then arises: in which way can new technologies improve the ability of Austria and EU to operate in situations of conflict and fragility?

The principle of ethnicity in the Dayton Agreement. The heavy burden of ethnic segregation on Bosnia and Herzegovina

21. Oktober 2019

The Western-Balkans wandered through numerous changes in the years after the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s. However, the casualties of those conflicts themselves were massive and should haunt that region until this day. From the ashes, after the Bosnian War, the institutions of the Bosnian civil society had to rebuild and consolidate Bosnia and Herzegovina- back in 1995, a nearly impossible task.
In this paper, the causes and the current situation of the ethnical segregation in Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be firmly examined; this means that the Dayton Agreement and the inherent consequences it had on the Bosnian society after its creation should also be analyzed. Therefore, the complex Bosnian electoral law and the educational policy “Two schools under one roof”, which ultimately creates ethnic tensions and segregation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, should be examined as well. In order to inspect Bosnia’s ethnic segregation more closely, the political opposition which stands against an equal status of the constituent peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina will also be analyzed. To further illustrate the inherent discriminatory effects of the Bosnian electoral law which is provided by the constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the case “Sejdić and Finci v. Bosnia and Herzegovina” has to be analyzed as well.

A Federation in peril: Yugoslavia’s economic crisis of the 1980s

The violent dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which spanned throughout the 1990s has a complex and profound back-story. Nationalist tendencies played a significant role in Yugoslavia’s demise, however it is often omitted that the unstable economic situation in Yugoslavia during the 1980s also majorly contributed to the sudden destructive collapse of the Socialist Federative Republic a quarter century ago.
In this research paper, the economic crisis of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia throughout the 1980s shall be observed. In order to fully grasp the actual reasons for the failing Yugoslav economy, Tito’s economic policies that echoed beyond his death into the 1980s shall be analyzed as well. The role of the International Monetary Fund during the Yugoslav economic crisis in the 1980s also will be covered, since the IMF majorly intervened in order to decrease the Yugoslav trade deficits, introducing a “shock therapy” to the Yugoslav economy. Lastly, it shall be observed to what extent the economic crisis and the IMF contributed to the dissolution of Tito’s 2nd Yugoslavia, which officially started in 1991 with the declaration of independence by Slovenia and Croatia.

Stellungnahme zum Entwurf betreffend das BBU-Errichtungsgesetz

Das Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Menschenrechte hat eine Stellungnahme zur geplanten „Bundesagentur für Betreuungs- und Unterstützungsleistungen (BBU)“ übermittelt. In ihrer juristischen Stellungnahme kommen BIM-ExpertInnen Margit Ammer und Adel-Naim Reyhani zum Schluss, dass die geplante BBU der EU-Grundrechtecharta widerspricht.

Stellungnahme zur Einführung der Todesstrafe für Homosexuelle in Brunei

Der neue wissenschaftliche Leiter des Ludwig Boltzmann Instituts für Menschenrechte (BIM), Prof. Dr. Michael Lysander Fremuth, hat diese Stellungnahme zur Strafrechtsreform in Brunei verfasst. Die Einführung der Todesstrafe durch Steinigung für gleichgeschlechtlichen Verkehr stellt eine klare Verletzung der Menschenrechte dar. Dies gilt auch für die weiteren Tatbestände wie außerehelicher Geschlechtsverkehr unter MuslimInnen, Raub und Beleidigung des Propheten. Das BIM schließt sich der internationalen Kritik an der Reform an und fordert das Sultanat Brunei zur Rücknahme der Strafrechtsreform auf.

Asylum and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights

This e-book deals with the role of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights for the European legal regime in the field of asylum and refugees protection. Two articles of the book (edited by A. Crescenzi, R. Forastiero, G. Palmisano) were (co-)written by experts of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights:
- Monina, Giuliana: "Judging" the Grounds for Detention of Asylum Seekers: Discrepancies between EU Law and the ECHR”
- Reyhani, Adel-Naim/Gómez del Tronco, Carlos/Mayer, Matthias Nikolaus: “Challenging the externalized obstruction of asylum – the application of the right to asylum to EU cooperation with Libyan coast guards”

Pakistan after the elections: Between Geopolitics and Crisis Management

In 2019, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is in the midst of a geopolitical struggle between China, USA and Russia for power, influence, resources and regional stability. Domestically the country is confronted with security, economic and social problems. Under these circumstances general elections were held in July 2018, which Imran Khan won. He now has to face a multitude of challenges. The EU and its member states should review its relations with Pakistan‘s new government, show confidence and strengthen relations at all levels. Austria could also set a course in this respect.

Österreichs Außenpolitik seit 1945

Die Außenpolitik kleiner und mittlerer Staaten ist in der Regel mehr mit der Sicherung des eigenen Staates (Souveränität, Ansehen, Nachbarschaft) als mit der Gestaltung der Weltpolitik beschäftigt. Damit geht eine enge Bindung außenpolitischer Aufgaben und Zielsetzungen mit innenpolitischen Überlegungen bei gleichzeitig hoher Abhängigkeit von internationalen Entwicklungen einher. Unter diesen Voraussetzungen war und ist die österreichische Außenpolitik der Zweiten Republik vorrangig damit beschäftigt, das österreichische Selbstverständnis und die Rolle der Republik im europäischen und globalen Umfeld zu definieren und zu sichern.

The “Helsinki Final Act” and its influence on the decline of the Soviet Empire

In this research paper, the backgrounds of the creation of the “Helsinki Final Act” and its influence on the dissolution of the Soviet Empire will be examined.With the conclusion of the Helsinki Accords in 1975, the dissident movement in the Soviet Union began to organize itself and to grow. This movement challenged the totalitarian Soviet regimes and left a deep impact on the civil society inside the Soviet Union itself. However, in 1975 the Helsinki Final Act was seen by many observers as a “Western defeat” and a Soviet diplomatic victory, since Leonid Brezhnev achieved the formal recognition of the Soviet influence sphere throughout Eastern Europe by the West. This initial “misconception” shall also be analysed in this paper.

Inclusive Peace - Frauen als Akteurinnen in Friedensprozessen

From Mention to Change: UNSCR 1325 + 20

2020 jährt sich die Annahme der UNSCR 1325 zur Rolle von Frauen in Konflikten zum 20. Mal. Zum Jubiläumsjahr ist Österreich international aufgefordert, sowohl eine erfolgreiche Implementierung des Nationalen Aktionsplans vorzuweisen als auch kritisch zu prüfen, wie eine Refokussierung auf neue Schwerpunkte der „Women, Peace and Security“ (WPS) Agenda aussehen kann. Die Studie zeigt aktuelle Frauen-relevante Trends in Friedensabkommen und Voraussetzungen für erfolgreiche weibliche Friedensvermittlung auf. Daraus werden konkrete Empfehlungen auf nationaler und internationaler Ebene abgeleitet. Das Projekt verfolgt mit Blick auf BMEIA und BMLV eine gesamtstaatliche Perspektive.

Les conséquences des politiques migratoires européennes en Afrique de l’Ouest

Les défis des migrants expulsés à Bamako

Cette étude porte sur les conséquences des politiques migratoires au Mali et aussi au niveau de l’espace de libre circulation de la Communauté Économique des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO). Elle traite les conditions de vie des migrants et migrantes expulsés ou reconduits à la frontière européenne.

Die vorliegende Studie behandelt die Folgen der EU Migrationspolitik in Mali bzw. dem ECOWAS Raum (Westafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft), insbesondere die Lebenssituation von abgeschobenen und zurückgekehrten Migrant_innen aus der EU. Die zentralen Ergebnisse und die Zusammenfassung sind auch auf Deutsch enthalten.

A Climate of Fairness

Environmental Taxation and Tax Justice in Developing Countries

Developing countries are increasingly affected by environmental pollution. All economic predictions indicate that climate change will hit developing countries hardest. Environmental taxes can address some of the environmental problems faced by developing countries while encouraging sustainable production and consumption patterns and delivering the financial means necessary to enhance environmental and social indicators. However, environmental taxes may result in both direct and indirect price increases of goods and services, which can have negative impacts on social equity, particularly in poor households.

This report aims to address this potential conflict and to consider the trade-offs and complementarities between environmental taxation and social equity. It analyses the role that environmental taxation has to play in obtaining tax justice and considers whether and to what extent environmental taxation can contribute to more progressive and sustainable tax systems and more equitable societies in developing countries.

Afghanistan's labor market and the status of women

Refugees return to poverty, unemployment and despair

This study provides an overview and analysis of Afghanistan’s labor market, focusing in particular on the informal sector and the participation of women in the labor force.

In the second half of 2016, Pakistan forcibly expelled more than half a million Afghan refugees, the greatest number of returnees from Pakistan since U.S. forces ousted the Taliban in 2001. This massive influx exacerbated Afghanistan’s already critical socioeconomic situation.

Wahlen in der Ukraine - Aktuelle Tendenzen

Die Präsidialwahlen in der Ukraine sind zweifellos das Hauptereignis des Jahres 2019 und zwar sowohl für die Innen- als auch für die Außenpolitik. Das Ergebnis wird unmittelbaren Einfluss auf die grundlegenden Prozesse im Land für mindestens die folgenden 5 Jahre haben.

Libya - elections require a re-negotiation of power arrangements

Six years after the first free elections in Libya, the country is deeply divided, with a sustainable solution to the ongoing conflict remaining out of sight. Following a diplomatic initiative by French President Macron, the four most important stakeholders in Libyan politics announced their intentions to hold elections by the end of 2018.

Six months later it is clear that elections will not take place any time soon, due to the absence of a legal framework and the tense security situation. For now, a re-negotiation of power arrangements is urgently needed in order to facilitate future elections. Simultaneously curtailing corrupt and powerful non-democratic actors, while including the Libyan population and militias, is of crucial importance in the power re-negotiation process.

Der Kampf um Idlib

In der ersten Hälfte 2018 haben Assads Truppen und Verbündete den Großteil Westsyriens zurückerobert. Die Provinz Idlib im Nordwesten wurde dabei zum Auffanglager und zur letzten Hochburg der Rebellen. Eine Offensive des Regimes wird seit Monaten erwartet. Das neue "Feichtinger kompakt"-Video widmet sich dem Kampf um Idlib.

Libyen - Wahlen erfordern eine Neuverhandlung der Machtverhältnisse

Sechseinhalb Jahre nach den ersten freien Wahlen ist Libyen tief gespalten und eine nachhaltige Lösung für den andauernden Konflikt ist nicht in Sicht. Im Zuge des Pariser Gipfels im Mai 2018 bekannten sich die vier wichtigsten libyschen politischen Akteure zu Wahlen für Ende 2018. Sechs Monate später war klar, dass aufgrund fehlender rechtlicher Grundlagen und einer angespannten Sicherheitslage keine Wahlen in naher Zukunft stattfinden werden. Um mittelfristig Wahlen zu ermöglichen ist eine Neuordnung der Machtverhältnisse unumgänglich. Der entscheidende Punkt dabei ist, dass sowohl die breite Bevölkerung als auch die mächtigsten Milizen von einem Deal profitieren müssen, um dessen Funktionsfähigkeit zu garantieren.

Mythos "Gerasimov-Doktrin": Ansichten des russischen Militärs oder Grundlage hybrider Kriegsführung?

Seit Russlands Annexion der Krim im März 2014 tauchte der Begriff „Gerasimov-Doktrin“ sowohl in den Medien als auch in Fachkreisen vermehrt auf. Was hinter diesem Schlagwort steckt, und ob es sich um eine Doktrin im Wortsinne handelt, soll dieser Band klären. Anhand mehrerer Regionalstudien untersuchen die Autorinnen und Autoren die Rezeption der „Gerasimov-Doktrin“ in verschiedenen Teilen Europas und in der VR China. Ebenso wird die Entstehungsgeschichte der „Doktrin“ und ihre Einbettung in die offiziellen, russischen Militärdoktrinen dargelegt. Somit vereint dieser Band Hintergrundwissen mit einer fundierten Analyse der regionalen Unterschiede sicherheitspolitischer Diskurse.

Feichtinger kompakt: Die EU und Migration

Italien verschärft das Einwanderungsrecht und schließt Häfen für Rettungsschiffe, zwischen Deutschland und Österreich wird die Grenze kontrolliert und in Brüssel ringt man um eine einheitliche Asyl- und Migrationspolitik. Hat Europa keine Lehren aus 2015 gezogen? Dazu mehr in Feichtinger kompakt: Die EU und Migration.

Klare Visionen und realisierbare Maßnahmen dringend notwendig

Ausblick auf die EU-Integration des Westbalkans am Ende der österreichischen EU-Ratspräsidentschaft

IDM Policy Paper Series 3/2018

Zu den wesentlichen Prioritäten der österreichischen EU-Ratspräsidentschaft 2018 zählten vor allem „die Sicherung der Außengrenzen, Bekämpfung der illegalen Migra¬tion, die Stärkung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit Europas sowie die Förderung der Stabili¬tät in den EU-Nachbarländern“. Außerdem sei Österreich „schon seit Langem Förderer der EU-Erweiterung in Richtung Westbalkan“, wie der Nationalratspräsident Wolfgang Sobotka im Oktober 2018 betonte.
Wie wichtig es dabei ist, jungen Menschen eine Stimme zu geben, verdeutlichten namhafte Veranstaltungen in diesem Jahr, wobei sogar klare Empfehlungen für den Berlin-Prozess formuliert wurden. Für die Umsetzung dieser stehen allerdings die Vorzeichen am Ende der ös¬terreichischen EU-Ratspräsidentschaft eher schlecht, womit die genannten Prio¬ritäten anhand der realpolitischen Gegebenheiten relativiert werden. Klare Visionen und realisierbare Maßnahmen erscheinen daher umso dringlicher.

Western Balkans 2018/19 - overcoming or deepening of crises?

IFK Monitor International on the subject of "Western Balkans 2018/19 - overcoming or deepening of crises?"

Election results in Bosnia and Herzegovina are likely to prolong the political crisis rather than end it. The situation calls for a stronger commitment by the international monitoring body OHR. The Kosovo „dialogue" as well as the security situation in Kosovo remain fragile. By contrast, the naming dispute between Athens and Skopje has taken a positive turn.

Russia’s Strategic Miscalculation in Blockading the Sea of Azov

06. Dezember 2018

Commentary by DA-Alumnus Roger Hilton, now Research Fellow at the Canadian Global Affairs Institute and the Institute for Security Policy at Kiel University, about the recent tension between Russia and Ukraine over the Sea of Azov, published on the European Leadership Network website.

Sicherheitspolitische Dynamiken in Afrika

Afrika rückt zunehmend in den Fokus der Sicherheitspolitik europäischer Staaten. Flucht- und Migrationsbewegungen über das Mittelmeer tragen zur Entstehung innereuropäischer Kontroversen bei. Zudem wecken militante Gruppierungen die Angst vor terroristischen Anschlägen in Europa. Die grenzüberschreitende Wirkung regionaler afrikanischer Krisen und Konflikte sowie die möglichen Auswirkungen auf die innere Sicherheit und Stabilität der Europäischen Union und ihrer Mitgliedstaaten werden dadurch deutlich. Die kulturelle, ökonomische und politische Vielfalt am afrikanischen Kontinent ist enorm. Die 54 Staaten Afrikas haben unterschiedliche Interessen und besitzen diverse Potentiale und Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten. Daneben sehen sich afrikanische Staaten mit komplexen und vielfältigen sicherheits- und entwicklungspolitischen Herausforderungen konfrontiert. Zahlreiche externe Akteure sind am Kontinent aktiv. Afrikanische Staaten bemühen sich jedoch zunehmend, mehr Verantwortung im Feld der Sicherheits- und Entwicklungspolitik zu übernehmen.

Die Straße von Hormus

"Die Straße von Hormus" des Blogs "Feichtinger kompakt"

In diesen professionell produzierten Kurzvideos werden von Brigadier Dr. Walter Feichtinger aktuelle sicherheitspolitische Themen analysiert und verständlich zusammengefasst. 

Fact Sheet Syrien

Aktuelle Konfliktanalyse der Landesverteidigungsakademie.

DA's "One Question": Radmila Shekerinska, Macedonia's Minister of Defence

26. November 2018

This is video number four of our "One Question" feature. On 9 November 2018, Macedonia's Minister of Defence, Radmila Shekerinska, participated in the 22nd European Forum on "The EU as a leading actor for security and defence". We asked her about Macedonia's future regarding European integration, above all for young people.

The Need to Fight for Human Rights: Memorial Lecture for Professor Vojin Dimitrijevic

In this video, BIM director Manfred Nowak holds the 5th Memorial Lecture for Serbian Professor Vojin Dimitrijević, founder and long-time director of the Belgrade Center for Human Rights. Manfred Nowak goes back to the beginnings of human rights that emerged in particular with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the need for unity after the end of the Second World War. In his talk, he addresses the difficulties of monitoring states compliance with human rights and the crucial role of dialogue and compromise in order to protect human rights for all.

Podcast: The global problem of incarcerated children - Manfred Nowak at World Radio Switzerland

In this interview, BIM director Manfred Nowak addresses the burning issue of children deprived of liberty. In October 2016, Manfred Nowak was appointed as Independent Expert leading the United Nations Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty and since then has been working on this topic together with a specialist team at the BIM, the European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratization (EIUC) and other partner organisations. In this interview, he presents the progress of the study and emphasises the need for alternative measures to incarceration.

Human rights in translation: Bolivia’s law 548, working children’s movements, and the global child labour regime

What happens when children use their own understandings of their human rights to question international standards in the very places where these are adopted and monitored? This article, published in the International Journal of Human Rights (2018), examines the encounters of Latin American working children’s movements with members of the European Parliament in Brussels and with ILO staff in Geneva, in an attempt to influence the assessment of Bolivia’s Law 548.

Vienna+25 Conference (May 2018): Compilation of Documents

In May 2018, on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the World Conference on Human Rights, the Vienna+25 conference brought together experts from all world regions. They shared their perspectives on current human rights challenges and elaborated practical recommendations to encourage states and other stakeholders to improve the protection of human rights, both domestically and internationally. This brochure contains the documents that were prepared ahead of the conference, such as the concept note and thematic outline papers, as well as the recommendations that were developed during the Working Group discussions at the conference.

Die Verkehrung des Rechts auf Asyl in einer Welt der Nationalstaaten

In diesem Beitrag zum Spotlight-Magazin des Vienna Institute for International Dialogue and Cooperation (VIDC) skizziert Adel-Naim Reyhani, wie dasselbe Europa, das noch vor fast 70 Jahren eine historische völkerrechtliche Vereinbarung zum Schutz von Flüchtlingen hervorgebracht hat, nun dabei ist, dieses Asylrecht ins Gegenteil zu verkehren. Er argumentiert, weshalb heute globale Ansätze und ein Gespräch über die Mängel der internationalen Ordnung notwendig sind, um die grassierende Rechtelosigkeit von Asylsuchenden an den Grenzen Europas zu überwinden.

Wieso wir mit Staaten nicht Verstecken spielen sollten

In diesem Beitrag im Verfassungsblog setzt sich Adel-Naim Reyhani mit der Frage auseinander, wie asylrechtlicher Diskurs damit umgehen sollte, wenn Staaten mithilfe kreativer Ansätze die Einreise von Asylsuchenden verhindern wollen. Er führt dabei aus, weshalb das Spannungsverhältnis zwischen Menschenrechten und nationalstaatlichem Gestaltungsspielraum nur mit einem klaren Blick auf die Mängel der internationalen Ordnung aufgelöst werden kann.

The right to asylum and EU asylum policy

This BIM POSITION aims at outlining the perspective of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights on critical elements of the European Union’s (EU) approach towards the institution of asylum. For this purpose, it examines selected aspects of EU policy and presents reflections on a possible way forward based on a conceptualization of the right to asylum.

Feichtinger kompakt: Migration - eine globale Herausforderung

Kein Thema treibt die Politik in europäischen Staaten mehr als Migration. Sie ist mittlerweile sogar zu einem potentiellen Spaltpilz in der EU geworden. Doch eine gemeinsame Problemsicht und Strategie sind dringend nötig. In dieser Folge spricht Brigadier Walter Feichtinger über das Thema: Migration - eine globale Herausforderung.

Russland nach den Wahlen 2018: Stabilität vs. Veränderung?

Am 7. Mai 2018 wurde Wladimir Putin zum vierten Mal für weitere sechs Jahre als Präsident der Russischen Föderation angelobt. Er konnte sich zwar durch die "Heimholung" der Krim bereits einen Platz in der russischen Geschichte sichern, steht jedoch vor großen Herausforderungen. So muss etwa die Wirtschaft nachhaltig gestärkt werden, die Konflikte in Syrien und der Ukraine verbrauchen wertvolle Ressourcen und die Gräben zum Westen haben sich weiter vertieft. Wie steht es also um die Stabilität des Systems Putin und welche Rolle wird Russland als sicherheitspolitischer Akteur zukünftig spielen?

Diplomats and Spies - Time to Talk Debates

30. Oktober 2018

Mihai-Răzvan ­Ungureanu talked about "Diplomats and Spies" at the Vienna Humanities Festival 2018.

How do the two depend on each other despite their contradictions and what role will information (overt and covert) play in enhancing national security in the future?

Ungureanu served as Romania’s prime minister, foreign minister and director of the foreign intelligence service. As such, he crisscrossed the worlds of diplomacy and espionage, developing a distinct perspective of their relationship. Currently, the historian is a Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Human Sciences, Vienna and lecturer at the Diplomatische Akademie Wien - Vienna School of International Studies.

The discussion was moderated by Prof. Markus Kornprobst of the Diplomatische Akademie Wien - Vienna School of International Studies.

Nationalistic populism and its reception in Central Europe

Nationalist-populistic discourse is gaining momentum in many EU-member states, not least in the Central European region. European approaches to cope with the manifold challenges the EU and its members are currently facing, are meeting resistance, while trust in the capacity and ability of common European cross-border solutions is rather low. Trends to recur to a national political agenda have the potential to jeopardise the cornerstones of European integration and democracy and, thus, diminish the EU´s unity, its global weight and its credibility. A joint project by the Austrian Society for European Politics, the Center for European Neighborhood Studies (Central European University Budapest), EUROPEUM Prague, the Faculty of Social Sciences (University of Ljubljana) and GLOBSEC Policy Institute Bratislava examines on the basis of representative opinion polls if people in Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia buy into anti-EU rhetoric and to what extent the respective national EU debate affects EU public opinion.

Die Handels- und Wohlfahrtseffekte eines ungeordneten Ausscheidens Großbritanniens aus der EU

Der vorliegende Policy Brief von Harald Oberhofer und Michael Pfaffermayr diskutiert die möglichen Handels- und Wohlfahrtseffekte eines ungeordneten Ausscheidens Großbritanniens aus der EU ("Hard Brexit") und soll die potentiellen Kosten veranschaulichen, die entstehen können, falls es zu keiner Einigung über den Austritt Großbritanniens kommt und folglich die ökonomische Bedeutung eines Abkommens verdeutlichen.

Drone Wars: To What End? An Investigation into the Long-Term Risks of U.S. Drone Warfare

24. Oktober 2018

Master's Thesis submitted by Stephanie Trapp in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Advanced International Studies (M.A.I.S.).

This thesis aims to investigate the risks and security implications concerning the U.S. deployment of drones in modern warfare, focusing on the case study of Pakistan. [...] The long-term impacts and risks may very likely incorporate a cumulative effect and consequently unpredictable consequences.

The Rise of Asia and the Consequences for the European Identity

23. Oktober 2018

Public Lecture by Stephen Keith Green, Baron Green of Hurstpierpoint, Peer in the British House of Lords, former Minister of State for Trade and Investment of the United Kingdom, held on 11 October 2018 at the DA

On Foreign Policy — The imperative for the EU to become a serious foreign political player in the 21st century or to be side-lined in the Great Game

23. Oktober 2018

Paper by Klemens H. Fischer, lecturer at the DA, published in: 'Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft' (Springer Fachmedien)

Today's multipolar structure is a major challenge for global players. The European Union is set to re-define its position to meet these challenges. The European Common Market does not only secure major economic influence globally, but it also provides the European Union with the necessary means to develop its own strategies in the areas of foreign and defence policy. The EU Common Foreign and Security Policy will have to be aligned with both the needs and the capacities of the Union in order to play a key role in that field, too.

Conflict Resolution and the Role of Local Religious Leaders in the Central African Republic

02. Oktober 2018

Master's Thesis submitted by Mathias Humenberger in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Advanced International Studies (M.A.I.S.).

Conflict in the CAR has been ongoing for years, despite the constant engagement of the international community and various concluded peace agreements. [...] [This thesis is a] case study, analysing the effects of local religious community leaders in making peace and ensuring reconciliation supplies useful policy recommendations on how to diversify and improve future peacebuilding initiatives.

Narrating Autocracy: Political Discourse in Latin America's Pink Tide

02. Oktober 2018

Master's Thesis submitted by Victoria Fassrainer in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Advanced International Studies (M.A.I.S.).

This thesis investigates the autocratization of the Pink Tide in Latin America between 1999-2017, focusing on the presidencies of Hugo Chávez (Venezuela), Rafael Correa (Ecuador) and Evo Morales (Bolivia). The study explores the role of discourse—specifically, that of legitimation narratives— in authoritarian consolidations. It hypothesizes that legitimation narratives underpin the evolution of the Pink Tide governments and seeks to understand how legitimation is discursively constructed and upheld throughout autocratization.